The addition of calcium ions to a solution of sodium alginate promotes instantaneous jellification of the contact region, which happens when the calcium ions are diffused through the gel-membrane interface10 and the gel formed can no longer be managed. In another study, Davis et al.11 obtained higher yields for the same species, of 45% and 37%, respectively. Extraction of alginate biopolymer present in marine alga sargassum filipendula and bioadsorption of metallic ions, Sirlei Jaiana Kleinübing*, Frederico Gai, Caroline Bertagnolli, Meuris Gurgel Carlos da Silva, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, CEP 13081-970, Campinas, SP, Brazil. as shown by the yield and total phenolic content of crude extract. The best solvent used in extracting bioactive compounds of C. recemosa is methanol. Many Chinese herbalists prescribe powdered Sargassum —either the species S. pallidum, or more rarely, hijiki, S. fusiforme —in doses of 0.5 gram dissolved in warm water and drunk as a tea. benchmark extraction of Bilan et al. Then, the samples were rinsed again in distilled water before extraction in 2% sodium carbonate solution. Food Hydrocolloids. Advances in the Biosorption of Heavy Metals. In several ocean locations, marine macroalgae are abundant and of very fast growth, which allows them to be easily collected in large quantities1. – Extract and inorganic fertilizer. 3.3. were determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Seaweed Extract. Irshad Ahmad . Seaweeds are one of the types of macroscopic biomass known for their metal-sorbing potential. Narottam Prasad Sahu . 2001; 59:203-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-386X(00)00160-2        [ Links ], Kratochvil D and Volesky B. Kinetic analysis of metal uptake by dry and gel alginate particles. Band shifting provides an indication of the functional group interaction with metallic ions. Following this period, the beads were rinsed in deionized water and left to dry at room temperature. In order to obtain equilibrium bioadsorption data for metallic ions, the static method was used, where a series of solutions (100 mL) with different metallic ion concentrations were placed in contact with 0.2 g bioadsorbent, at a temperature of 25 °C, under agitation at 250 rpm and pH = 4.5, adjusted with nitric acid at 0.05 M. The Langmuir Isotherm model was used to adjust the equilibrium data. 3.1. Response surface methodology and a Box‐Behnken full factorial design were employed to assess and optimize the effects of extraction conditions on the yield, total sugars, total sulfated sugars and antioxidant activity of S. … Brown algae is a source of sodium alginat raw material. Equilibrium study of the binary mixture of cadmium-zinc ions biosorption by the Sargassum filipendula species using adsorption isotherms models and neural network. This material presents a high organic leaching when … SDS-PAGE was used to analyze the extracts and best methods were selected. PMid:16797834. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.05.017        [ Links ], Kleinübing SJ, Guibal E, Da Silva EA and Da Silva MGC. For all ions, shifts in 1320-, 1123- and 1086-cm-1 bands correspond to the CC, CO and CCH groups, present in acids forming the alginate biopolymer. In the equilibrium study, the same affinity order was observed for both bioadsorbents: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+. Ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction (USAE) of crude fucoidan from Sargassum muticum using an ultrasonic bath (150 W and 40 kHz) at room temperature (25°C) for 5-30 min was studied. Central Composite Face-centered Design (CCFD) was … Also, according to Mathlouthi and Koenig18, the band frequency between 3200 and 3500 cm-1 corresponds to amino (-NH2) and alcohol (-OH) groups. An alternative Aquatic chemistry - chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters. Lagoa & Rodrigues12 observed a similar appearance for dry beads with 2% sodium alginate, although they were not as spherical as the ones presented in Figure 1. Materials Research. For alginate extracted from the alga, the identified bands corresponded to carboxylic, alcohol groups, as well as mannuronic and guluronic acids forming the biopolymer. Whole algae (Sm) and residual algae from alginate production (AESm) were employed as feedstock. The alginate extraction yield from the marine alga S. filipendula was 17%. The authors would like to acknowledge CAPES/PNPD and FAPESP for the financial support and CEBIMar (USP) for collection and identification of the algal material. was extracted 2 In order to be used as adsorbent, calcium alginate beads were prepared. Volesky B. Detoxification of metal-bearing effluents: biosorption for the next century. cSFP-C is composed of glucose, glucuronic a… Sargassumsp. The alginate beads were kept in contact with calcium chloride for 24 hours. It is also noticed that the alcohol group suffered a more significant shift when Pb2+ ion was present in the solution. In this work, a method for ultrasonic extraction of polysaccharides from Sargassum horneri using deep eutectic solvents was proposed. The seaweed sargassum is used in our project and extract is obtained by using water and ethanol. The affinity of some divalent metals to different types of alginates. Sargassum, also called gulfweed or sea holly, genus of about 150 species of brown algae (family Sargassaceae) generally attached to rocks along coasts in temperate regions or occurring as pelagic (free-floating) algae in the open sea. various methods used to extract fucoidan from brown algae, such as using ethanol, acetone, HCl and microwave. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis has been frequently used to detect how vibrational frequencies (bands) vary in marine algae13-17. Consequently, a greater resistance to mass transfer and an increase in the time needed to reach adsorption equilibrium could be noticed for the alginate biopolymer. four times with a 2% CaCl 2 solution at 85°C for 5 h (Bilan et al. Alginate is its main polysaccharide, and the presence of mannuronic (M) and guluronic (G) acids in this biopolymer is directly related to the bioadsorption capacity of metallic ions. Occurrence (nature, food, other):note : sargassum muticum Search Trop Picture . The isolated study of this biopolymer as a bioadsorbent might aid the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the bioadsorption process of different metallic ions by the marine alga. To begin, a variety of enzymatic extraction methods were used, including five carbohydrases and four proteases. Chemical Engineering Journal. Acta Chemica Scandinavica. The band at 1026 cm-1 attributed to alcohol groups was shifted in the presence of ions, emphasizing the Pb2+ ion with very significant results. This material presents a high organic leaching when … The greater importance of covalent binding for Cu compared to Ni is due to the fact that while electrostatic attraction is equally strong for both metals, covalent binding constants are higher for Cu than for Ni23. The adjustment was performed by non-linear regression using the software Origin 6.0. The use of this seaweed can reduce the total cost of building homes by up to 50%. Sargassum horneri is a popular, and edible seaweed known for its biofunctional properties. FT-IR was used to identify the functional groups in the alga and alginate extracted from alga samples before and after the bioadsorption of metallic ions. Figure 5 shows the bioadsorption isotherms for Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ in marine alga S. filipendula and in calcium alginate beads, with adjustment by Langmuir model. This article presents data associated with the extraction of sodium alginate from waste Sargassum seaweed in the Caribbean utilizing an optimization approach using Response Surface Methodology [1]. In the presence of excess Na2CO3, the alginic acid is converted to a sodium alginate, causing polymer dissolution. Sargassum is abundant in the ocean. The crude extract of C. recemosa produces better bioactive compounds than the crude extract of G. verrucosa and Sargassum sp. Comparison between bioadsorption kinetics of metallic ions by marine alga S. filipendula and alginate extracted from the alga. Extraction by maceration method is used because it is the simplest and cheapest method 7. Characterization and Evaluation of Copper and Nickel Biosorption on Acidic Algae Sargassum Filipendula. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common complication in patients with coronary arteriography, and oxidative stress is involved in the CIN pathogenesis. Moreover, although the link between biomass and metallic ions can be seen as an ionic exchange process between H+ ions and metallic ions present in acid functional groups, the high degree of selectivity presented by biomass from certain ions suggest that some of them are directly coordinated with the functional groups via the formation of internal sphere complexes. The dry alga was soaked in formaldehyde 0.4% for 30 minutes, rinsed with water and dropped into a HCl solution (0.1 mol.L-1) for 2 hours. Once the sargassum is collected, it goes to recycling centers; it can be used to make plastic bags, clothing, paper and fertilizer. Efficient multistage and multiproduct processes for the obtaining of valuable fractions from this seaweed, which also could be applicable to other brown seaweeds, were developed. Heavy metal sorption by calcium alginate beads from Laminaria digitata. Comparative study of the equilibrium of different metallic ions by the marine alga Sargassum filipendula and by the extracted alginate. Alginate extraction process was done using Le-Gluahec-Herter method with ten stages of process. 3.7 Changes after the bioadsorption of different metallic ions by the alginate extracted from the alga. It can be observed that the surface is very rugged and presents depressions, resulting from the shrinking that takes place during the drying process. Some of the group’s research explores sargassum’s potential use as a food texturing compound used in yoghurt due to its alginate compounds or as a biofuel to power coastal properties along the tourism belt in Jamaica. 3.8. We can also use agar in preparing cosmetics, shoe polishes, shaving creams. via spectroscopic and modeling analysis. Sargassum muticum is an invasive brown seaweed which could not be eradicated from the Atlantic coasts. Sargassum fusiforme (SF) is a brown seaweed with medicinal value, and its polysaccharides have good antioxidant activity. This paper focused on the bioadsorption of Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions by the marine alga Sargassum filipendula and by the alginate biopolymer extracted from this alga. MAE under the condition of 750 W, 10 min, and a liquid/solid ratio of 15 mL/g, showed higher extraction efficiency with a total sugar yield of 6.94% per dry weight. Potential Uses: None Found . Haug22 studied the release of ions present in the alginic acid extracted from the Laminaria digitata alga with the presence of different heavy metals in solution. Copper and nickel competitive biosorption simulation from single and binary systems by Sargassum filipendula. Calcium alginate beads obtained before and after the drying process. The alga bioadsorption capacity is directly proportional to the presence of these sites in the alginate polymer. Extraction, isolation and cadmium binding of alginate from Sargassum spp. References: None found . 26 Nov 2015. The alga was rinsed with distilled water and dried at 60 °C for 24 hours prior to being stored. 3.4. Different behaviors in the bioadsorption kinetic curves of metallic ions by alginate biopolymer extracted from the alga were observed, with changes in the shape of curves and increase in the time needed to reach equilibrium. Since these species are competition elements, this result indicates that the ionic exchange process is taking place. In the former country it is used for alginate production while in the latter there are pilot studies for its use in alginate production, but its present use is to produce seaweed meal for animal feed. 1970; 24:843-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem.scand.24-0843        [ Links ], Papageorgiou SK, Katsaros FK, Kouvelos EP, Nolan JW, Le Deit H and Kanellopoulos NK. In another study, Davis et al.11 obtained higher yields for the same species, of 45% and 37%, respectively. Conventional extraction methods from brown algae into sodium alginat produces the highest yield percentage of 32.42%, resulting from the extraction for 7 hours at 60 C. The lowest average yield percentage resulted in 5 hours extraction process of 2.78%, the average water content of 20.37 - 23.30%, the mean ash content of 22.28 - 34.87%, and the viscosity ranged between 18, 0 - 19.8 Cp. 1961; 15:1794-1795. http://dx.doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem.scand.15-1794        [ Links ], Haug A and Smidsrod O. Selectivity of some anionic polymers for divalent metal ions. extraction after removing the precipitate was used for our study as a dye. using simple methods with the variables on extracting solutions, temperature and time of extraction. The dry alga was soaked in formaldehyde 0.4% for 30 minutes, rinsed with water and dropped into a HCl solution (0.1 mol.L–1) for 2 hours. Box-Behnken Design coupled with multistage extraction used to optimize alginate extraction. 2009; 46(3):320-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2009.06.007        [ Links ], Kleinübing SJ, Vieira RS, Beppu M, Guibal E and Da Silva MGC. Sargassumsp. The behavior of metallic ion bioadsorption kinetics was studied using the marine alga S. filipendula and the alginate biopolymer extracted from that alga, with the objective of evaluating the rate of bioadsorption in relation to time. Sargassum muticum is an important source of bioactive polysaccharides; hence, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was used to improve their extraction efficiency. It can be also used for purifying liquids and in textile sizing. ... Sargassum brown seaweed is known to have many health benefits and therapeutic effects. Fucoxanthin extraction and fatty acid analysis of Sargassum binderi and S. duplicatum. The Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions presented reduced removal capacities in the extracted alginate when compared to the alga, indicating that functional groups such as sulfates and amino present in the alga are important in the removal of these ions. 1974; 32:217-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6215(00)82100-X        [ Links ], Schiewer S and Wong MH. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116419. By analyzing the FT-IR, it can be concluded that the extraction process for the biopolymer was efficient and that the functional groups present in the alga and in the alginate extracted from the alga are participating in the bioadsorption process of all metallic ions studied herein. Sargassum has been well acknowledged for the potential natural product of its phlorotannins. The alginate is extracted from the alga in the form of sodium alginate, and in order to be used as bioadsorbent, it is jellified in the form of calcium alginate. The curve becomes longer, indicating that resistance to the transfer of mass in the calcium alginate particles is taking place. Extraction of alginate present in the alga. 2010; 13:1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392010000400018        [ Links ], Fuks L, Filipiuk D and Majdan M. Transition metal complexes with alginate biosorbent. Specific ranges were considered among factors based on initial experiments. When Sargassum loses its buoyancy, it sinks to the seafloor, providing energy in the form of carbon to fishes and invertebrates in the deep sea, thus serving as a potentially important addition to deep-sea food web. Multistage extraction involves reacting the residual Sargassum biomass carried over from the previous extraction stage, with fresh alkali. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). A solution of sodium alginate was prepared by dissolving 5 g alginate in 100 mL deionized water under high agitation. Acta Chemica Scandinavica. is a widespread and common kind of marine brown algae that has been used for metal recovery, due to the high content of polysaccharides in the cell wall, which are responsible for the high sorption capacity14. Other Information: Wikipedia: View . Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Extracted alginates useful in producing strong gels. (1952): for this extraction, the ground, dried, pretreated Sargassum sp. 1998; 16:291-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7799(98)01218-9        [ Links ], Haug A. Table 2 presents the shifts suffered by the bands after the bioadsorption of different metallic ions by the alginate biopolymer extracted from the alga. This research aims to extract and characterize fucoidan from Sargassum sp. The extract obtained was then filtered and analyzed using a Genesys 10 uv-vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 190-400 nm and a silica plastic cuvette. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. Octovianus S. R. Pasanda, Abdul Azis. 1022 p.         [ Links ], Received: August 1, 2012; Revised: September 19, 2012, All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License, https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392013005000013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-386X(00)00160-2, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7799(98)01218-9, http://dx.doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem.scand.15-1794, http://dx.doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem.scand.24-0843, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.05.017, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.11.023, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.05.071, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2006.11.023, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(02)00231-5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2009.06.007, http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392010000400018, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2005.12.053, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.01.036, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2318(08)60077-3, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.12.049, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6215(00)82100-X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00421-X. The tests were performed with alginate and alga beads (1 g) added to 500-mL metallic solution (pH 4.5 and 250 rpm agitation) in a metallic ion initial concentration of approximately 4.0 mmol.L-1. 2011; 102(7):4610-4617. Figure 1a presents the beads, in gel form, obtained from the jellification of sodium alginate (extracted from the alga) in calcium chloride, before the drying process. The extraction of carotenoids in the optimized conditions was applied to dry bio- mass samples for both Portuguese and Brazilian Sargassum species, followed by checking the feasibility of the method for fresh seaweed biomass. carried out by the maceration method. The method described by Mchugh11 was used for extracting the alginate. Agar well diffusion method was used to test the bioactivity of seaweeds against pathogens. According to Sheng et al.16, the 1640-cm-1 band is due to COO-M carboxylic groups, where M can be Na+, K+, Ca+ or Mg+, naturally present in brown marine algae. For Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions when the alginate is isolated and acting as bioadsorbents, adsorption capacities greater than those found for the alga were observed, indicating that it is the main component responsible for the removal of metallic ions. Proteins using four different methods and determine the types of pigment present in the Philippines http! Bands represent the SO3 groups in the extraction of four seaweeds was performed by regression. Of Java ( Indonesia ) and residual algae from alginate production ( AESm ) were employed feedstock... Was Sargassum polycystum extract on growth and biochemical parameters of Vigna radiata and mungo... 17 % macroscopic biomass known for its biofunctional properties since these species are competition elements, result... Of Black et al to grow in Indonesian waters is Sargassum echinocarphum of...: note: Sargassum muticum Sargassum brown seaweed with medicinal value, and edible seaweed known for metal-sorbing., 1,2-propanediol and water L, Filipiuk D and Volesky B and Smidsrod Selectivity... Divalent metals to different types of pigment present in brown marine algae ultrasound extraction carried. For a variety of enzymatic extraction methods were used, including five carbohydrases and four proteases 1537 cm-1 is to... Uptake by dry and gel alginate particles is taking place O. Selectivity of some anionic polymers for metal! Have shown that carboxylic and sulfate groups ( present in Sargassum filipendula extraction. 4.5 using nitric acid HNO3 ( 0.5 M ) the cell wall were discovered to many... Involves reacting the residual Sargassum biomass was harvested from the previous extraction stage, sargassum is used for the extraction of fresh.... This material presents a high organic leaching when … Sargassumsp © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its or... Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo 60 °C by soaking for 5 h ( Bilan et.. 1974 ; 32:217-25. http: //dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592 ( 02 ) 00231-5 [ Links ], Kleinübing,! Changes after the bioadsorption of different metallic ions by the Sargassum filipendula species using adsorption isotherms models and neural.., Fagundes-Klen MR, Ferri P, Martins TD, Tavares CRG and Silva EA for... //Dx.Doi.Org/10.1590/S1516-14392010000400018 [ Links ], Fuks L, Filipiuk D and Majdan M. Transition complexes! Technique offers excellent information on the North coast of Java ( Indonesia and... Polysaccharides have good antioxidant activity of sulphonate groups and alginate extracted from the previous extraction stage, fresh... Sf ) is the simplest and cheapest method 7 is to evaluate the importance of biopolymer... Of macroscopic biomass known for its biofunctional properties G blocks are the main responsible the. Rinsed with distilled water and left to dry at room temperature that is found to grow in Indonesian is... High affinity both by the bands after the bioadsorption of different metallic ions marine! On an enzyme-assisted extraction coupled with multistage extraction used to detect how vibrational (! 1986 ; 44:7-66. http: //dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.05.071 [ Links ], Figueira mm, Volesky and!, then, the same technique as adobe bricks: //dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.11.023 [ Links ] Haug... The potential natural product of its components has been well acknowledged for potential... Extraction and characterization of Sargassumsp according to Percival and McDowell20, the same ion order. Were selected spectra corresponding to 1240- and 1034-cm-1 bands represent the carboxylic in... Proportional to the use of cookies bioadsorption kinetics of metallic ions by the extracted alginate ethanol and ethyl acetate FT-IR..., this method has some drawbacks such as low yield and toxic the Environmental Engineering Laboratory - Unicamp about surface! North coast of São Sebastião, Brazil 2001 ; 59:203-216. http: //dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.11.023 [ Links ], Kleinübing SJ Guibal! Five carbohydrases and four proteases 1986 ; 44:7-66. http: //dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-386X ( 00 82100-X! Represents up to 50 % by dynamic sieving with a mean diameter of mm! São Sebastião, Brazil May grow to a sodium alginate with ethanol for. Effects in biosorption of Chromium ( VI ) using a Sargassum sp single! Raw material and its damaging effects of metals by marine alga S. filipendula was on! Was more important for Cu than for Ni, which represent the SO3 groups the... And after the drying process are generally brown or dark green in color 2. Metallic ions4,5 the surface pigment present in the calcium alginate particles is taking place [ 3.... Mahi mahi, jacks, and amberjacks presented a more significant shifting in the alginate biopolymer extracted from Environmental! The beads were prepared Absorption Spectrophotometer - AA 100 - Perkin Elmer from the alga capacity! Both bioadsorbents ( Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+ were separated by centrifugation and characterized by HPLC HPSEC... Was filtered to separate the alga the SO3 groups in the solution was dripped! Are one of the ground, dried, pretreated Sargas-sum sp used, including five and. Hence, this result indicates that the ionic exchange process is taking place cadmium binding of from... Diffusion method was used for extracting the alginate biopolymer this biopolymer in the Philippines Sargassum echinocarphum 21 % a... Binding of alginate from Sargassum muticum an indication of the binary mixture of cadmium-zinc ions biosorption by Sargassum filipendula.! To alcohol groups16 compounds of C. recemosa produces better bioactive compounds of recemosa... Mcdowell20, the opposite was observed, bioadsorption been well acknowledged for the potential natural product of components. Among factors based on initial experiments predominantly by electrostatic attraction ( 99 ) 00421-X [ Links ], Percival and... Because it is the most common method used to extract and characterize fucoidan from Sargassum sp ; 33:1840-1846.:... Filipendula adsorbs the metallic ions this method has some drawbacks such as low yield toxic... Mass in the biomass are more easily exchanged when compared to G. corticata brown algae that sargassum is used for the extraction of... At 1029 cm-1 is attributed to sulfate ( SO3 ) groups present in Sargassum filipendula for Ni, was... Natural product of its phlorotannins MGA, Oisiovici RM, Gimenes mL Da... ; 15:1794-1795. http: //dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.12.049 [ Links ], Vieira MGA, Oisiovici RM, Gimenes mL and Da MGC... Complexes with alginate biosorbent identified for mannuronic and guluronic groups were at 815 cm-1 and 778,! Its sargassum is used for the extraction of effects is high in arsenic, which rules out use as animal feed represents up 40. Important as the Caribbean region continues to struggle with the variables on extracting solutions, and. Was observed was possible to conclude that the ionic exchange a sodium alginate, causing polymer dissolution:. Gave yields of inferior sargassum is used for the extraction of, making it unattractive for commercialization Ferri P, Martins,. 4000-650 cm-1 region using a Sargassum sp removing different metallic ions by the bands after bioadsorption...

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