"Why the neglect? And as David Hopkin has argued, investigating the actions of atypical women, such as female soldiers, has intellectual appeal beyond the perennial human fascination with the exceptional or the picturesque. Economic Cause. As Plumauzille puts it, “The police categorization of prostitution never completely replaced the republican political category of citizens (citoyennes.)”13. Start studying Historiography of the French Revolution. Borrowing from the Romantics for imagery (the introduction closely follows that of Michelet's "History..."), "Citizens" also argues against the Romantics' belief in the necessity of the Revolution. In it he established the conservative stream of opinion, wherein even the revolution of July 1789 went "too far". Unusual figures, from Marie-Antoinette to cross-dressed women, carried “a huge amount of cultural baggage”; so, analyzing marginal behavior produces understanding of mainstream gender norms and dynamics.7 Most broadly, this trend toward exploring subgroups in action mirrors the revolutionary field as a whole: cultural constructionist approaches now share the stage with greater focus on contingency, individual motivation, and close attention to the day-by-day, play-by-play dynamics of revolutionary politics. Godineau, “De la guerrière à la citoyenne,” 9; Jean-Clément Martin, “Travestissements, impostures, et la communauté historienne. In France, conspiracy theories were rife in the highly charged political atmosphere, with the Abbé Barruel, in perhaps the most influential work Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism (1797–1798), arguing that Freemasons and other dissidents had been responsible for an attempt to destroy the monarchy and the Catholic Church. This view sees the French Revolution as an essentially 'bourgeois' revolution, marked by class struggle and resulting in a victory of the bourgeoisie. The historiography of the French Revolution stretches back over two hundred years, as commentators and historians have sought to answer questions regarding the origins of the Revolution, and its meaning and effects. BOOK 1.II. Written during the Restoration, when the tricolor flag and singing the Marseillaise were forbidden, the book praised the principles, leaders and accomplishments of the 1789 Revolution; the clear heroes were Mirabeau, Lafayette, and other moderate leaders. In her study of familialist thinking, Anne Verjus has argued that most French women thought of themselves according to family roles rather than envisioning their gender status as women as their primary identity.15. The most significant opposition to arise in France was that of Annales historians François Furet, Denis Richet, and Mona Ozouf. For Martin, professionalizing the army entailed masculinizing it. Lettres 1773–1810 (Paris, 2017). Alternative Title: Revolution of 1789. Her first book, The Politics of Virtue in Social rights and French Revolutionary historiography. Tackett also has several works focusing on Reign of Terror, The Coming of the Terror in the French Revolution (2015), and the psychology behind the paranoia affecting the Committee of Public Safety during the Terror. Suzanne Desan, Lynn Hunt, and William Max Nelson (Ithaca, NY, 2013), 101–10; cf. Joan B. Landes offered the most influential early version of this interpretation in Women and the Public Sphere in the Age of the French Revolution (Ithaca, NY, 1988). Chroniques de la vie familiale à l’époque de la Révolution et de l’Empire (Paris, 2011). Ideal Masculinity and Male Sociability in the French Revolution, 1789–1799,” in French Masculinities: History, Culture, and Politics, ed. As such, there is a vast range of literature on the topic, much of it involving specific methodologies and approaches. His most famous work was Quatre-Vingt-Neuf (literally Eighty-Nine, published in 1939 and translated into English as The Coming of the French Revolution, 1947). Thus Schama is simultaneously able to deny the existence of a so-called "bourgeois" revolution, reserve apotheoses for Robespierre, Louis XVI, and the sans-culottes alike, and utilize historical nuance to a degree usually associated with more liberal historians. Much of this work arose in dialogue with au courant approaches in fields such as the histories of capitalism, sexuality, or the transatlantic world. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. 11 Eric Hazan, A People’ s History of the French Revolution (London: V erso, 2014), 4-83. His main point was that feudalism had long since disappeared in France; that the Revolution did not transform French society, and that it was principally a political revolution, not a social one as Lefebvre and others insisted.[22]. Alan Forrest, Karen Hagemann, and Jane Rendall (Basingstoke, UK, 2009), 77–95; Thomas Cardoza, Intrepid Women: Cantinières and Vivandières of the French Army (Bloomington, IN, 2010); Pauline Moszkowski-Ouargli, Citoyennes des champs. "The Historiography of the French Revolution," in A. Goodwin, editor, The, Minchul, Kim. Alphonse Aulard (1849–1928) was the first professional historian of the Revolution; he promoted graduate studies, scholarly editions, and learned journals. Introduction; Origins of the Revolution McManners, J. "Volney and the French Revolution." Social Cause 3. Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France was a response to revolutionary events that was conservative and skeptical, mostly condemning the revolution as a pointless excess. For a thought-provoking, art-historical take, see Ewa Lajer-Burcharth, Necklines: The Art of Jacques-Louis David after the Terror (New Haven, CT, 1999). Femmes, Genre, Histoire, dedicated a 2016 issue to “Citoyennetés” across the centuries and across the globe. ", Michael Scott Christofferson, "An Antitotalitarian History of the French Revolution: Francois Furet's Penser la Revolution francaise in the Intellectual Politics of the Late 1970s,", James Friguglietti and Barry Rothaus, "Interpreting vs. Understanding the Revolution: François Furet and Albert Soboul,", Donals Sutherland, "An Assessment of the Writings of François Furet,", CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism, The Oxford History of the French Revolution, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution, "Is It Really Over? Charlotte Corday et l’attentat contre Marat (1793–2009) (Seyssel, 2009), and “Scripting the French Revolution, Inventing the Terror: Marat’s Assassination and its Interpretations,” in Scripting Revolution: A Comparative Study of Revolutions, ed. There were many causes in the 1780s that led to the French Revolution, the … This is a list of a few historians during the French Revolution. Jennifer Heuer and Anne Verjus, “L’invention de la sphère domestique au sortir de la Révolution,” Annales historiques de la Révolution française (2002): 1–28. His celebrated Histoire de la Révolution française, in ten volumes, founded his literary reputation and launched his political career. Historians are also asking, how did individual women or subgroups of women demonstrate creativity, even as revolutionary elites often sought to reinforce the lines of male-female difference? The dechristianization of France during the French Revolution is a conventional description of the results of a number of separate policies conducted by various governments of France between the start of the French Revolution in 1789 and the Concordat of 1801, forming the basis of the later and less radical laïcité policies. Here is an emblem of that shift: In France, Christine Fauré—who in the 1980s had written a book called Democracy without Women—by 2006, was calling for new attention to “la prise de parole des femmes.” Fauré’s special issue of the Annales historiques de la Révolution française featured a parade of vocal female journalists, salonnières, and authors.5. 1. Chapter 1.1.II. Cf. It marked his transition from revolutionary leftist politics to liberal Left-center position, and reflected his ties to the social-science-oriented Annales School. Publishing and Cultural Politics in Revolutionary Paris, 1789-1810(Berkeley: UC Press, 1991). Male revolutionary leaders worked to police the lines of gender difference, albeit with uneven success. Pascale Barthélémy and Violaine Sebillotte Cuchet, “Sous la citoyenneté, le genre,” Clio. He also places increased emphasis on insurrectionary violence in Paris and violence in general, claiming that it was "not the unfortunate by-product of revolution, [but] the source of its energy. Academics in Historiography of the French Revolution - Academia.edu View Academics in Historiography of the French Revolution on Academia.edu. The bicentenary of the French Revolution in 1989 inspired a new wave of narrative histories, further expanding the historiography of the French Revolution. "Historiography of the French Revolution," in Michael Bentley, ed. Schama’s approach to writing history, along with hi… Likewise, in Freedom Papers, Rebecca Scott and Jean M. Hébrard follow the ex-slave Citoyenne Rosalie as she forges an unofficial family and negotiates “the world of power and paper”—not to marry but to document her own emancipation and her children’s. The latest scholarship recognizes limitations on women’s formal political power but focuses attention instead on women’s creativity and the malleability of gender identity, both in France and in the colonies. French historians of the first half of the 19th century like the politician and man of letters François Guizot (1787–1874), historian François Mignet (published Histoire de la Révolution française in 1824), and famous philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville (L'Ancien Régime et la Révolution, 1856) established and wrote in this tradition. He recognized the complications that prevented the Revolution from fulfilling all its ideal promises – as when the legislators of 1793 made suffrage universal for all French men, but also established the dictatorship of the Terror.[16]. Influenced by socialist politician Jean Jaurès and historian Albert Mathiez (who broke with his teacher Aulard regarding class conflict), historians on the left led by Georges Lefebvre and Albert Soboul developed this view. In April 1793, the French Republic passed a law that all “unnecessary women” should leave army camps within a week, but in the next two months, only three women left the army, and only one of these was discharged by the new law. All rights reserved. The Other Enlightenment: How French Women Became Modern(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001). Elizabeth Colwill argues that family and marriage were “a primary field for the operations of power in the post-emancipatory state” of Saint-Domingue after 1793. Sarah Knott, “Narrating the Age of Revolution,” William and Mary Quarterly 73, no. Decolonization Featured Book Historiography Intellectual History Middle Eastern History. . Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. The book's allegiance is to historical literary styles rather than schools. Femmes, Genre, Histoire 43 (2016): 7–22, quotes 7 and 13. Jean-Paul Bertaud traces an evolution of the virile ideal among soldiers: the valiant, politicized citizen-soldier of the Revolution morphs into the honor-driven, glory-pursuing Napoleonic soldier—still a patriot but differently so. Suppressed in 1793 during the French Revolution, it was restored as a division of the Institut de France in 1803 by Napoleon Bonaparte. [32] His works include Interpreting the French Revolution (1981), a historiographical overview of what has preceded him and A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (1989).[33][34]. The book played a notable role in undermining the legitimacy of the Bourbon regime of Charles X, and bringing about the July Revolution of 1830. "Fifty Years of Rewriting the French Revolution: Signposts Main Landmarks and Current Directions in the Historiographical Debate,", Friguglietti, James, and Barry Rothaus, "Interpreting vs. Understanding the Revolution: François Furet and Albert Soboul,", Hutton, Patrick H. "The role of memory in the historiography of the french revolution.". At each stage, the question of who should hold political power was further refined. This skilfully and persuasively argued work interprets the Revolution through a Marxist lens: first there is the "aristocratic revolution" of the Assembly of Notables and the Paris Parlement in 1788; then the "bourgeois revolution" of the Third Estate; the "popular revolution", symbolised by the fall of the Bastille; and the "peasant revolution", represented by the "Great Fear" in the provinces and the burning of châteaux. Profession(s): Historian, academic Books: The Crowd in the French Revolution, The Crowd in History, Revolutionary Europe: 1783-1815, Robespierre.. Perspective: Marxist-communist. Last Updated: Sep 10, 2020 See Article History. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Intriguingly, some of the historians producing the new work on subcategories of women have actually argued that gender identity does not matter as much as other means of claiming or conceptualizing citizenship. What followed was a situation where the revolution and its perpetrator took control of the government. Historians of the Revolution F.A. His other major work is When the King Took Flight (2004), a study of the rise of republicanism and radicalism in the Legislative Assembly in 1791/2. Posted on August 13, 2018 by Age of Revolutions. The trajectory of gender history in the 1990s and early 2000s is well known. 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